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Introduction in gardening

Now all cities of Russia are literally surrounded by garden plots. 20 million families have them almost. For many owners of six hundred parts cultivation of vegetables from a pleasant discharge after work in a city have turned hardly probable not to a survival condition. People give to the plots all free time, but they often do not have ability to receive from the hundred parts a crop, commensurable with the enclosed work. The assortment of cultures is poor also: you will seldom meet on gardens of more than 10-15 kinds of vegetables.

Every year the prices for seeds, fertilizers, a film grow, railway tickets rise in price. All it forces to reflect seriously on an increase yield of cultures, about profitability and a recoupment of garden plots.

How to receive from the small area various vegetable cultures in quantity, sufficient for maintenance of a family within round year? How many the earth it is necessary for achievement of this purpose? If to manage on method Mitlajdera – on so-called «narrow ridges» it is not enough. The technology of cultivation of vegetables on narrow ridges allows to receive heavy yields of every possible vegetable cultures, from year to year, stably. It is enough to assign for narrow ridges on 40 sq. m of the earth on each member of a family that the family has been completely provided by vegetables within round year. For a family from four persons 1,5 hundred parts of any earth will suffice – quality of its crucial importance has no. It is important only that nearby there was a water for glaze and the plot would be well shined, it is desirable all day long.

Weather conditions also are not a determinative. Hundreds owners of garden plots, working on narrow ridges, receive heavy yields of the first class vegetables as in droughty, hot, and cold, rainy years.

Quality of production cultivated on narrow ridges, excellent. Vegetables sweet, juicy, dense, are rich with fibers, vitamins, pectin, are attractive by sight, are perfectly stored. Since 1989 when method Mitlajdera has appeared for the first time in Russia, many hundreds samples have been analysed on nitrates with invariable result: production ecologically pure.

The method of narrow ridges involves with the simplicity, clearness, universality. Honesty carrying out the standard operations, even the beginning truck gardener can count on success, and in the first year it will have highly productive, free from weeds, surprisingly pure and beautiful garden. It is necessary not to deviate recommendations as for success all elements of technology are important only: fractional, a balanced nutrition of plants, the special form of ridges, their horizontal position, strictly fixed distances between plants among and well-known mitlajderovskie paths which are twice wider than ridges.

For at whom gardening is not the basic trade, the method of narrow ridges is especially attractive, as he demands less work and time, than traditional technologies: after initial clearing of a platform under a garden, narrow strips of ridges are dug over only; paths never dig over; ridges and passes never interchange the position; soil on ridges never loosen, manual weeding of weeds is shown to a minimum. It is possible to assert with confidence, that the method of narrow ridges is ideal for family vegetable growing. If you have decided it to master, in advance take care of creation of conditions for storage of vegetables and preparations that heavy yields have not taken you unawares.

But method possibilities at all are not limited to a commodity farm. It is enough to add to 1,5 hundred parts of as much again earth that the family has received the considerable income of sale of vegetables. And the highly profitable farm can be developed already on 10-15 hundred parts, and without attraction of any agricultural machinery and with the minimum investment of means.

In our life deficiency of pleasure not less, and probably and more, sharp, than deficiency of a high-quality foodstuff. Working on narrow ridges, the person tests pleasure not only from a good harvest, but also from the process of cultivation of vegetables. The beauty of a garden which is more similar to park, leaves nobody indifferent.

The one who at least one season has worked on narrow ridges, is convinced of huge possibilities of this method and already simply cannot return to traditional technology.

Source of information: Введение в садоводство

The reference to gardeners

The method of agriculture described in this section, is simple, productive and is as though created for a small plot of the earth on which the family works. It is a method of narrow ridges with which help any not well-groomed plot of land can be transformed into the prospering garden fruiting since early spring till late autumn.

Working on narrow ridges, we can satisfy our three pressing needs:

• it is a lot of to provide with seven products of vegetable growing;

• to receive high-grade, healthy, not poisoned with toxic materials and nitrates vegetables;

• to test pleasure comprehended, creative, generously cart of awarded work.

But behind it, so to say, household level of motivation of our reference to work on the earth, motives absolutely other level, more often not realised appear.

All of us in the answer for monstrous violence over the earth of Russia which proceeded long decades, accruing as technical equipment of a society increased. If to speak only about the agricultural purpose earths the loss caused to it is so great, that Russia which could support the half-world, has turned to the country, which existence already more than 30 years depends on foodstuffs import.

Certainly, and senseless flooding of the fertile earths, and erection on them monsters of a military-industrial complex, and amelioration among which "achievements" a shallowing big and disappearance of the small rivers, and the chemization which has poisoned with herbicides of the area, comparable France with territory, and «peace atom», turned back nuclear war against the earth and the people, of course, these and many other things killing projects were born in high offices. But after all a sentence in execution we, frequently fair, self-denying workers, good professionals, builders and hydrobuilders, scientists and workers of the design organisations, ameliorators and pilots of an agricultural aviation, workers of a city and village, say, resulted all those to whom it is now bad who feels deceived and searches for the guilty.

And can be, what occurs to us, this natural punishment? Perhaps our works have ruined from – what, creating relative values, values absolute destroyed? We have encroached on the nature, the earth, on the soul of Russia and now we are responsible for it under laws eternal.

Let’s leave false hopes that those or other political forces will breed us from crisis. While we make a complaint to everybody, but not to to ourselves, it becomes better to us not. There is only one way of revival – a way of comprehension of fault, a repentance and the restrained work to the blessing. Probably, the best, that we can make now for Russia, is to revive its tiny part, that plot of land which is given in full our order. Let everyone creates a beauty and abundance oasis on the earth.

Yes the Lord will help us to clear and revive itself, the earth, the Native land!

For active participation and support at creation of this book I wish to express deep gratitude to Michael Leonidovichu Vasilevsky, Alexander Petrovichu Starshinovu, Maje Aleksandrovne Cheremisinoj, Gajmru Robertovichu Hafizovu and Marina Iosifovne Mokeevoj.

I am deeply grateful to members of my family – to the husband, Kazantsev Edward Nikolaevichu helping me at all stages of work, and also the daughter and the son-in-law, Natalia Eduardovne and Jury Nikolaevichu Kazantsev accepting active participation in working out of the program «Family vegetable growing on 1,5 hundred parts».

I thank also listeners of my lectures for that persistence and enthusiasm which they have enclosed in development of a method of vegetable growing on narrow ridges. Them much them not only steels active propagandists of this remarkable technology have achieved outstanding results, but also. Special gratitude I wish to express to Alexey Aleksandrovichu Makarovu, Inna Konstantinovne Morozovoj and Veniamin Ivanovichu Sultanovu for the help in the organisation and registration of lectures of this section.

Tatyana Ugarova

Source of information: Обращение к садоводам

 

The summary to vegetable growing

Vegetable growing is a branch of plant growing. Directions: vegetable growing opened and a sheltered ground.

In this section experience of use of method Mitlajder in Russia is reflected. Tatyana Jurevnoj Ugarovoj in detail states technology of vegetable growing on narrow ridges – highly productive, simple for the development, extremely unified for the different cultures, demanding a minimum of time and expenditures of labour, effective on any soils and under any weather conditions. The technology is adapted to is soil – to climatic conditions of Russia, features of its use in a small personal economy are revealed, effective mixes for the fertilizer, made on the basis of domestic fertilizers are approved. Features of cultivation of separate vegetable cultures on narrow ridges are described, the big attention is given correct selection of breeds and planting times. The technology elements are underlined, allowing to remove from one ridge on two crops of vegetables in a year.

For skilled truck gardeners and the beginners, all those who wishes to provide the with seven high-quality vegetables from 1,5-2 hundred parts of a garden, and also those who a profitable commodity vegerable-growing economy on so small area as wishes to develop 10-15 hundred parts.
Materials are prepared under the book «Family vegetable growing on narrow ridges», the author: Dr.Sci.Biol. Ugarova Tatyana Jurevna.
 

Source of information: Аннотация к овощеводству

 

 

Vegetable growing – the term 2

Vegetable growing – a science studying biology of vegetable plants and methods of their cultivation. Development of scientific researches on vegetable growing to Russia went in parallel with growth of all agricultural productions. In 19 century outstanding scientist-self-educated person Efim Andreevich Grachev worked. Much is made for development of vegetable growing by R.I.Schröder, M.V.Rytovym, N.I.Kichunovym. The considerable contribution to selection of vegetable plants has brought Russian geneticist Nikolay Ivanovich Vavilov.

Bases of scientific vegetable growing are developed by Russian scientist-vegetable grower Vitaly Ivanovichem Edelshtejnom and its numerous pupils, it deeply investigates the various parties of biology of vegetable plants and many agrotechnical methods are proved. Especially successfully vegetable growing developed in the country after October revolution of 1917; selection work with vegetable cultures was spent, preparation of experts has increased.

Scientific and selection work with vegetable cultures in the USSR is conducted (1972) over 150 institutes, experimental stations, laboratories, by design offices and chairs. Are developed: scientific bases of vegetable growing, biological, technological, etc. methods of increase of efficiency of vegetable plants; effective systems of fertilizers and ways of an irrigation; new cars for crop, plantings, leaving and harvesting; types and designs of constructions for cultivation (a hothouse, hotbeds, etc.) and storehouses; pest control effective remedies, diseases and weeds.

The big work on breeding of new breeds and hybrids of vegetable cultures and working out of methods of their seed-growing is spent.

Source of information: Овощеводство

Vegetable growing abroad

Abroad vegetable growing differs in the separate countries assortment of cultures and methods of their cultivation. Among the foreign socialist states specific weight of vegetable growing in plant growing and economy of Bulgaria where cultivate vegetables in a considerable quantity for export is especially high; 1 place on areas under crops and a total yield is occupied with a tomato, then a sweet pepper, vegetable peas, an onions, salad, colour and green-head cabbage, carrot, etc.

Bulgaria exports 19 kinds of fresh vegetables and 24 kinds of canned vegetables to 26 countries. On scales heterosis seed-growings of vegetable cultures it occupies 1 place in the world. Vegetable growing quickly develops in Hungary and Romania which export a considerable part of production. Cultivate mainly a tomato, and also cabbage, a common onion and pepper.

In GDR the basic vegetable cultures – vegetable peas, carrot, a celery, cabbage, a cucumber, a tomato, a head lettuce, a kohlrabi. In Poland the cabbage, an onions, carrot, a beet, a tomato, a cucumber have great value.

The considerable areas under vegetable cultures on Cuba where cultivate a tomato, an onions, a cucumber, beans, eggplants, cabbage, salad, garlic, carrot.

In Yugoslavia on 1st place on volume of production among vegetable cultures there is a cabbage, on 2nd – a bean; cultivate also onions napiform, a leek-onions, garlic, a tomato, pepper, carrot, etc.

In the Peoples Republic of China vegetable growing – one of the most ancient branches of agriculture. There cultivate about 80 kinds of vegetable cultures, most of all in the South and the country Southwest.

Vegetable growing differs intensity of use of the ground areas (receive on 3 – 9 crops in a year in the south and 1 – 3 crops – in northern areas), prevalence of manual skills. The basic cultures: a Chinese cabbage, the Chinese radish, a Welsh onion-onions, mustard (sheet and root crop), garlic, a cucumber, a bean, etc.

Among the capitalist European countries under vegetable cultures Italy has the greatest area. The country of the developed vegetable growing – the Netherlands. Reception of cheap production is reached by specialisation of economy on the limited quantity of cultures, presence of a considerable quantity of hothouses and reception in them of several crops in a year. Assortment of cultivated cultures: a tomato, a cucumber, salad, colour and Brussels sprouts, spinach, a leek-onions, carrot, a celery, parsley, a scorzonera, vegetable peas and a bean.

The Netherlands occupies 1 place in the world on the area of hothouses per capita (4,24). Over 30 various kinds of vegetables cultivate in Germany. In the Great Britain the greatest specific weight vegetable bean cultures and cabbage (mainly colour and Bruxelles) have, salad, a cress-salad and onions.

Vegetable growing – large branch of agriculture of production in the USA. Over 50 % of a crop of vegetables goes on various kinds of processing. The assortment of cultivated cultures is rich. The basic cultures: a sweet corn, a tomato, vegetable peas and a bean, salad, an asparagus. There is a strict specialisation in production of vegetables. Seed-growing of vegetable cultures, reception and use heterosis seeds is developed.

The great value of vegetable growing has in Mexico, where vegetables (mainly a tomato) cultivate for export. In Japan vegetable growing is characterised by high level of mechanisation, use of highly productive heterosis hybrids, chemical growth stimulants of plants. The main vegetable cultures on production volume – the Chinese and green-head cabbage, a common onion, a cucumber, a tomato, a radish-dajkon. Hothouse vegetable growing is developed also. Tunnels with a film covering are applied.

In vegetable growing as are engaged in a number of the countries of Africa (ARE, Algeria, Tunis, Morocco).
 

Source of information: Овощеводство за рубежом

 

System of seed-growing of vegetable cultures

Seed-growing – the branch of plant growing engaging in mass reproduction of seeds of regionized varieties for realisation of a strain changing and a strain renovation. By production of high-quality seeds the measures providing their preservation selected, biological and fruitful qualities are taken. Seed-growing is directly connected with selection. Its theoretical basis is seed growing.
 

The system of seed-growing of vegetable cultures consists of following links: the selektsionno-skilled establishments working with vegetable cultures, the state crop-testing stations, All-union association "Союзсортсемовощ", specialised seed productions, kontrolno-seed laboratories. Work on seed-growing is carried out in all union republics. The greatest quantity of seeds vegetable and watermelons cultures Ukraine, the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic and the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic make RSFSR.

Source of information: Система семеноводства овощных культур

 

Increase yield of vegetables

In an increase yield and increase in production of vegetables the important role is played by Selection and Seed-growing. The Soviet selectors breed breeds of vegetable cultures for each soil-climatic zone of the country, various ripenings on times, for cultivation in opened and a sheltered ground, consumption in a fresh kind and for different kinds of processing qualitatively new breeds and heterosis forms of plants Are etc. bred also: cold-resistant, determinant, bole breeds of a tomato; keeper and ultra-early ripening breeds of cabbage, and also a breed, resistant against a clubroot; partially monoecious forms of a cucumber; breeds of carrot with the raised content of carotin; an one-seeded table beet, breeds of a beet for an early winter sowing. On 1974 637 breeds (80 %) Soviet selection have been zoned 796 breeds and hybrids of vegetable cultures, from them.

Planned selektsionno-seed-growing work on vegetable cultures in the country is carried out since 1921 when there was decision Council of Peoples Commissars «About seed-growing», signed by V.I.Lenin. In 1920 have been organised the Gribovsky vegetable selection experimental station (Institute of Selection and seed-growing of vegetable cultures), the Skvirsky experimental field and the chair of vegetable seed-growing in the Moscow agricultural academy of name Klimenta Arkadevicha Timirjazeva is founded. In 1934 branch seed-growing organisations “Gossortfond”, «Sojuzsortsemovosch» have been created.

Source of information: Повышение урожайности овощей

 

 

Measures on an increase yield of vegetable cultures

The basic agrotechnical measures applied to an increase yield of vegetable cultures: use of high-quality seeds of the most productive breeds and hybrids, introduction of efficient rotations with scientifically proved crop rotation, an irrigation, application in sufficient doses organic and fertilizers, agrotechnical, biological and chemical protection frames of plants from pests, diseases and weeds. The soil cultivation system under vegetable cultures includes autumn and a presowing cultivation, and also interrow loosening.

Vegetable plants usually cultivate on the equal surface convenient for mechanisation. In damp areas of the North and the Northwest and on the lowered plots in the Central area of the European part of the USSR apply ridges and crests. The norm of entering of fertilizers in 1972 has reached 1 ton and more on 1 hectares of vegetable crops. Seeds of vegetable cultures, and also place cabbage and tomato seedling square and square-cluster in the ways. Care of vegetable cultures consists in soil loosening in row widths, weeding, a hilling, a thinning of plants, a top-dressing, watering, graft vines, a side-shoot removing, etc.

Works on cultivation of vegetable cultures in collective farms and state farms basically are mechanised. In the USSR 3 machinery complexes are defined, each of which corresponds to agrotechnical requirements of this or that zone. At modern level of mechanisation of vegetable growing in specialised state farms of an expense of work fluctuate from 0,34 (cabbage plants average and late) to 1,67 (bulb onion) of a man-day on 1 centner of production. Also the big expenses of work characterise tomato production – 0,61 and a cucumber – 0,76 man-days on 1 centner of production. In large hothouse economy automatic control vodno-air, gas modes and a diet of plants takes root.
 

Source of information: Меры по повышению урожайности овощных культур

 

Vegetable growing – the term 1

Vegetable growing – the branch of agriculture engaging in cultivation of vegetable plants. Melon growing concerns vegetable growing – cultivation watermelons cultures.

Distinguish vegetable growing of an open ground and vegetable growing of the protected (closed) ground. In an open ground cultivate vegetable cultures for reception of vegetables and seeds during the spring-and-summer and autumn periods, in a sheltered ground – vegetables during out-of-season time when on climatic conditions crop reception in the field is impossible, and seedlings for an open ground.

Vegetable growing opened and sheltered ground vegetable growing are closely connected among themselves: one supplementing another, they provide production of vegetables within all year.

Features of vegetable growing: mass application seedlings a method, and for a sheltered ground, besides, application rise and distillation plants (reception of vegetable production for the account before the spare nutrients postponed in a vegetative organism). In vegetable growing cultivation of two or several cultures on the same area throughout a season, so-called is often applied. A compact crop. In vegetable growing secondary seedings and plantings of vegetable cultures are extended also.

In the USSR in an open ground cultivated about 60 vegetable plants, and also spicy vegetable plants (a tarragon, a cress-salad, a coriander, mint and others). In an open ground the cabbage, a tomato, a cucumber, an onions, carrot and a beet, in a sheltered ground – the basic cultures are most extended: a cucumber, a tomato, onions (distillation on a feather), and also a cauliflower, salad and a radish.

The first mentions of cultivation of vegetables in territory of the USSR concern 5 century of our era. In 11 – 15 centuries vegetable growing in Russia has reached concerning high the then level. Further vegetable growing development occurred the slowed down rates. Before October revolution 1917 vegetable growing on 85 % had consumer or semiconsumer character; basically it has been concentrated to gardens of peasant farms (whence and the vegetable growing name – "gardening"). The Total area under vegetable cultures in 1913 made 648 thousand in hectares. Industrial and trading gardening occupied all about 15 % of all crops of vegetable cultures, and development and its disposition had spontaneous character. The part of truck gardens has been located in immediate proximity from the big cities.

Wide development of vegetable growing has received in days of the Soviet power. Especially intensively it began to develop after agriculture collectivisation – in 1930 areas under vegetable cultures made 1146 thousand in hectares, i.e. Have increased in 1,8 times in comparison with the pre-revolutionary period. In 1939 18th congress has passed the decision to create round Moscow, Leningrad, Kharkov, Bitter, Kiev, the centres of Donbass, Kuzbas, the Far East and others a vegetable-potato and the cattle-breeding bases completely providing supply of these centres by vegetables and a potato.

In days of the Great Patriotic War 1941 – 1945 the big damage has been caused to vegetable growing. During the post-war period the party and the government have taken the measures directed on development of vegetable growing, increase in assortment of cultivated vegetable cultures to supply the population of the USSR within all year with fresh vegetables.

Round large cities and industrial centres the big specialised vegerable-growing state farms of vegetable growing have been created has promoted to Kamchatka, Chukotka, to Khabarovsk territory. The area under crops of vegetable cultures was in 1940 – 1506 thousand in hectares, in 1972 – 1578 thousand in hectares. The increase in production of vegetables was reached thanks to an increase yield of vegetable plants in an open ground and to sharp expansion of the areas in a sheltered ground, mainly under film coverings. In 1972 basic areas under vegetable cultures were in RSFSR (706 thousand in hectares) and Ukraine (486 thousand in hectares). The Total yield of vegetables in 1972 19,9 million tons, productivity – 122 centners about 1 hectares.

The industry on processing of vegetables, production of canned food, tomato juice, mashed potatoes, paste and the frozen vegetables has been created. In 1972 the area of the winter glazed hothouses has made 6,9 thousand in hectares, hothouses vernal with a film covering of 2,3 thousand in hectares, hotbeds of 1,8 thousand in hectares, a heated ground with a film covering of 2,6 thousand in hectares.
 

Source of information: Овощеводство